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Apollo God Of The Sun Symbol

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Apollo God Of The Sun Symbol

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The pair was practicing throwing the discus when a discus thrown by Apollo was blown off course by the jealous Zephyrus and struck Hyacinthus in the head, killing him instantly.

Apollo is said to be filled with grief. The festival Hyacinthia was a national celebration of Sparta, which commemorated the death and rebirth of Hyacinthus.

Another male lover was Cyparissus , a descendant of Heracles. Apollo gave him a tame deer as a companion but Cyparissus accidentally killed it with a javelin as it lay asleep in the undergrowth.

Cyparissus was so saddened by its death that he asked Apollo to let his tears fall forever. Apollo granted the request by turning him into the Cypress named after him, which was said to be a sad tree because the sap forms droplets like tears on the trunk.

Admetus , the king of Pherae, was also Apollo's lover. The romantic nature of their relationship was first described by Callimachus of Alexandria, who wrote that Apollo was "fired with love" for Admetus.

He would also make cheese and serve it to Admetus. His domestic actions caused embarrassment to his family.

Oh how often his sister Diana blushed at meeting her brother as he carried a young calf through the fields!

When Admetus wanted to marry princess Alcestis , Apollo provided a chariot pulled by a lion and a boar he had tamed. This satisfied Alcestis' father and he let Admetus marry his daughter.

Further, Apollo saved the king from Artemis' wrath and also convinced the Moirai to postpone Admetus' death once. Branchus , a shepherd, one day came across Apollo in the woods.

Captivated by the god's beauty, he kissed Apollo. Apollo requited his affections and wanting to reward him, bestowed prophetic skills on him.

His descendants, the Branchides, were an influential clan of prophets. Apollo sired many children, from mortal women and nymphs as well as the goddesses.

His children grew up to be physicians, musicians, poets, seers or archers. Many of his sons founded new cities and became kings.

They were all usually very beautiful. Asclepius is the most famous son of Apollo. His skills as a physician surpassed that of Apollo's.

Zeus killed him for bringing back the dead, but upon Apollo's request, he was resurrected as a god. Aristaeus was placed under the care of Chiron after his birth.

He became the god of beekeeping, cheese making, animal husbandry and more. He was ultimately given immortality for the benefits he bestowed upon the humanity.

The Corybantes were spear-clashing, dancing demigods. The sons of Apollo who participated in the Trojan War include the Trojan princes Hector and Troilus , as well as Tenes , the king of Tenedos , all three of whom were killed by Achilles over the course of the war.

Apollo fathered 3 daughters, Apollonis , Borysthenis and Cephisso , who formed a group of minor Muses, the "Musa Apollonides".

They were nicknamed Nete, Mese and Hypate after the highest, middle and lowest strings of his lyre. Anius , Pythaeus and Ismenus lived as high priests.

Most of them were trained by Apollo himself. He also had a son named Chrysorrhoas who was a mechanic artist. Apollo turned Parthenos into a constellation after her early death.

Additionally, Apollo fostered and educated Chiron , the centaur who later became the greatest teacher and educated many demigods, including Apollo's sons.

Apollo also fostered Carnus , the son of Zeus and Europa. Marpessa was kidnapped by Idas but was loved by Apollo as well.

Zeus made her choose between them, and she chose Idas on the grounds that Apollo, being immortal, would tire of her when she grew old.

Sinope , a nymph, was approached by the amorous Apollo. She made him promise that he would grant to her whatever she would ask for, and then cleverly asked him to let her stay a virgin.

Apollo kept his promise and went back. Bolina was admired by Apollo but she refused him and jumped into the sea.

To avoid her death, Apollo turned her into a nymph and let her go. Castalia was a nymph whom Apollo loved. She fled from him and dove into the spring at Delphi, at the base of Mt.

Parnassos , which was then named after her. Water from this spring was sacred; it was used to clean the Delphian temples and inspire the priestesses.

Cassandra , was a daughter of Hecuba and Priam. Apollo wished to court her. Cassandra promised to return his love on one condition - he should give her the power to see the future.

Apollo fulfilled her wish, but she went back on her word and rejected him soon after. Angered that she broke her promise, Apollo cursed her that even though she would see the future, no one would ever believe her prophecies.

Hestia , the goddess of the hearth, rejected both Apollo's and Poseidon's marriage proposals and swore that she would always stay unmarried.

Artemis as the sister of Apollo, is thea apollousa , that is, she as a female divinity represented the same idea that Apollo did as a male divinity.

In the pre-Hellenic period, their relationship was described as the one between husband and wife, and there seems to have been a tradition which actually described Artemis as the wife of Apollo.

However, this relationship was never sexual but spiritual, [] which is why they both are seen being unmarried in the Hellenic period.

Artemis, like her brother, is armed with a bow and arrows. She is the cause of sudden deaths of women. She also is the protector of the young, especially girls.

Though she has nothing to do with oracles, music or poetry, she sometimes led the female chorus on Olympus while Apollo sang.

Artemis Daphnaia had her temple among the Lacedemonians, at a place called Hypsoi. Hecate , the goddess of witchcraft and magic, is the chthonic counterpart of Apollo.

They both are cousins, since their mothers - Leto and Asteria - are sisters. One of Apollo's epithets, Hecatos , is the masculine form of Hecate, and both the names mean "working from afar".

While Apollo presided over the prophetic powers and magic of light and heaven, Hecate presided over the prophetic powers and magic of night and chthonian darkness.

Hecate is the goddess of crossroads and Apollo is the god and protector of streets. The oldest evidence found for Hecate's worship is at Apollo's temple in Miletos.

There, Hecate was taken to be Apollo's sister counterpart in the absence of Artemis. As a deity of knowledge and great power, Apollo was seen being the male counterpart of Athena.

Being Zeus' favorite children, they were given more powers and duties. Apollo and Athena often took up the role as protectors of cities, and were patrons of some of the important cities.

Athena was the principle goddess of Athens , Apollo was the principle god of Sparta. As patrons of arts, Apollo and Athena were companions of the Muses , the former a much more frequent companion than the latter.

In the Trojan war, as Zeus' executive, Apollo is seen holding the aegis like Athena usually does. In Aeschylus ' Oresteia trilogy, Clytemnestra kills her husband, King Agamemnon because he had sacrificed their daughter Iphigenia to proceed forward with the Trojan war.

Apollo gives an order through the Oracle at Delphi that Agamemnon's son, Orestes , is to kill Clytemnestra and Aegisthus , her lover.

Orestes and Pylades carry out the revenge, and consequently Orestes is pursued by the Erinyes or Furies female personifications of vengeance. Apollo and the Furies argue about whether the matricide was justified; Apollo holds that the bond of marriage is sacred and Orestes was avenging his father, whereas the Erinyes say that the bond of blood between mother and son is more meaningful than the bond of marriage.

They invade his temple, and he drives them away. He says that the matter should be brought before Athena. Apollo promises to protect Orestes, as Orestes has become Apollo's supplicant.

Apollo advocates Orestes at the trial, and ultimately Athena rules in favor of Apollo. The Roman worship of Apollo was adopted from the Greeks.

On the occasion of a pestilence in the s BCE, Apollo's first temple at Rome was established in the Flaminian fields, replacing an older cult site there known as the "Apollinare".

After the battle of Actium , which was fought near a sanctuary of Apollo, Augustus enlarged Apollo's temple, dedicated a portion of the spoils to him, and instituted quinquennial games in his honour.

The chief Apollonian festival was the Pythian Games held every four years at Delphi and was one of the four great Panhellenic Games.

Also of major importance was the Delia held every four years on Delos. Athenian annual festivals included the Boedromia , Metageitnia , [] Pyanepsia , and Thargelia.

Spartan annual festivals were the Carneia and the Hyacinthia. Thebes every nine years held the Daphnephoria.

Apollo's most common attributes were the bow and arrow. Other attributes of his included the kithara an advanced version of the common lyre , the plectrum and the sword.

Another common emblem was the sacrificial tripod , representing his prophetic powers. The Pythian Games were held in Apollo's honor every four years at Delphi.

The bay laurel plant was used in expiatory sacrifices and in making the crown of victory at these games. The palm tree was also sacred to Apollo because he had been born under one in Delos.

Animals sacred to Apollo included wolves , dolphins, roe deer , swans , cicadas symbolizing music and song , ravens , hawks , crows Apollo had hawks and crows as his messengers , [] snakes referencing Apollo's function as the god of prophecy , mice and griffins , mythical eagle—lion hybrids of Eastern origin.

Homer and Porphyry wrote that Apollo had a hawk as his messenger. As god of colonization, Apollo gave oracular guidance on colonies, especially during the height of colonization, — BCE.

According to Greek tradition, he helped Cretan or Arcadian colonists found the city of Troy. However, this story may reflect a cultural influence which had the reverse direction: Hittite cuneiform texts mention an Asia Minor god called Appaliunas or Apalunas in connection with the city of Wilusa attested in Hittite inscriptions, which is now generally regarded as being identical with the Greek Ilion by most scholars.

In this interpretation, Apollo's title of Lykegenes can simply be read as "born in Lycia", which effectively severs the god's supposed link with wolves possibly a folk etymology.

In literary contexts, Apollo represents harmony, order, and reason—characteristics contrasted with those of Dionysus , god of wine, who represents ecstasy and disorder.

The contrast between the roles of these gods is reflected in the adjectives Apollonian and Dionysian. However, the Greeks thought of the two qualities as complementary: the two gods are brothers, and when Apollo at winter left for Hyperborea , he would leave the Delphic oracle to Dionysus.

This contrast appears to be shown on the two sides of the Borghese Vase. Apollo is often associated with the Golden Mean. This is the Greek ideal of moderation and a virtue that opposes gluttony.

Apollo is a common theme in Greek and Roman art and also in the art of the Renaissance. Greek art puts into Apollo the highest degree of power and beauty that can be imagined.

The sculptors derived this from observations on human beings, but they also embodied in concrete form, issues beyond the reach of ordinary thought.

The naked bodies of the statues are associated with the cult of the body that was essentially a religious activity.

The muscular frames and limbs combined with slim waists indicate the Greek desire for health, and the physical capacity which was necessary in the hard Greek environment.

The statues of Apollo embody beauty, balance and inspire awe before the beauty of the world. The evolution of the Greek sculpture can be observed in his depictions from the almost static formal Kouros type in early archaic period , to the representation of motion in a relative harmonious whole in late archaic period.

In classical Greece the emphasis is not given to the illusive imaginative reality represented by the ideal forms, but to the analogies and the interaction of the members in the whole, a method created by Polykleitos.

Finally Praxiteles seems to be released from any art and religious conformities, and his masterpieces are a mixture of naturalism with stylization. The evolution of the Greek art seems to go parallel with the Greek philosophical conceptions, which changed from the natural-philosophy of Thales to the metaphysical theory of Pythagoras.

Thales searched for a simple material-form directly perceptible by the senses, behind the appearances of things, and his theory is also related to the older animism.

This was paralleled in sculpture by the absolute representation of vigorous life, through unnaturally simplified forms. Pythagoras believed that behind the appearance of things, there was the permanent principle of mathematics, and that the forms were based on a transcendental mathematical relation.

His ideas had a great influence on post-Archaic art. The Greek architects and sculptors were always trying to find the mathematical relation, that would lead to the esthetic perfection.

In classical Greece, Anaxagoras asserted that a divine reason mind gave order to the seeds of the universe, and Plato extended the Greek belief of ideal forms to his metaphysical theory of forms ideai , "ideas".

The forms on Earth are imperfect duplicates of the intellectual celestial ideas. The artists in Plato's time moved away from his theories and art tends to be a mixture of naturalism with stylization.

The Greek sculptors considered the senses more important, and the proportions were used to unite the sensible with the intellectual.

Kouros male youth is the modern term given to those representations of standing male youths which first appear in the archaic period in Greece.

This type served certain religious needs and was first proposed for what was previously thought to be depictions of Apollo. The formality of their stance seems to be related with the Egyptian precedent, but it was accepted for a good reason.

The sculptors had a clear idea of what a young man is, and embodied the archaic smile of good manners, the firm and springy step, the balance of the body, dignity, and youthful happiness.

When they tried to depict the most abiding qualities of men, it was because men had common roots with the unchanging gods. Apollo was the immortal god of ideal balance and order.

In the first large-scale depictions during the early archaic period — BC , the artists tried to draw one's attention to look into the interior of the face and the body which were not represented as lifeless masses, but as being full of life.

The Greeks maintained, until late in their civilization, an almost animistic idea that the statues are in some sense alive. This embodies the belief that the image was somehow the god or man himself.

The statue is the "thing in itself", and his slender face with the deep eyes express an intellectual eternity. According to the Greek tradition the Dipylon master was named Daedalus , and in his statues the limbs were freed from the body, giving the impression that the statues could move.

It is considered that he created also the New York kouros , which is the oldest fully preserved statue of Kouros type, and seems to be the incarnation of the god himself.

The animistic idea as the representation of the imaginative reality, is sanctified in the Homeric poems and in Greek myths, in stories of the god Hephaestus Phaistos and the mythic Daedalus the builder of the labyrinth that made images which moved of their own accord.

This kind of art goes back to the Minoan period, when its main theme was the representation of motion in a specific moment.

The earliest examples of life-sized statues of Apollo, may be two figures from the Ionic sanctuary on the island of Delos.

Such statues were found across the Greek speaking world, the preponderance of these were found at the sanctuaries of Apollo with more than one hundred from the sanctuary of Apollo Ptoios , Boeotia alone.

Ranking from the very few bronzes survived to us is the masterpiece bronze Piraeus Apollo. It was found in Piraeus , the harbour of Athens.

The statue originally held the bow in its left hand, and a cup of pouring libation in its right hand. It probably comes from north-eastern Peloponnesus.

The emphasis is given in anatomy, and it is one of the first attempts to represent a kind of motion, and beauty relative to proportions, which appear mostly in post-Archaic art.

The statue throws some light on an artistic centre which, with an independently developed harder, simpler and heavier style, restricts Ionian influence in Athens.

Finally, this is the germ from which the art of Polykleitos was to grow two or three generations later. At the beginning of the Classical period , it was considered that beauty in visible things as in everything else, consisted of symmetry and proportions.

The artists tried also to represent motion in a specific moment Myron , which may be considered as the reappearance of the dormant Minoan element.

The Greek sculptors tried to clarify it by looking for mathematical proportions, just as they sought some reality behind appearances. Polykleitos in his Canon wrote that beauty consists in the proportion not of the elements materials , but of the parts, that is the interrelation of parts with one another and with the whole.

It seems that he was influenced by the theories of Pythagoras. The famous Apollo of Mantua and its variants are early forms of the Apollo Citharoedus statue type, in which the god holds the cithara in his left arm.

The type is represented by neo-Attic Imperial Roman copies of the late 1st or early 2nd century, modelled upon a supposed Greek bronze original made in the second quarter of the 5th century BCE, in a style similar to works of Polykleitos but more archaic.

The Apollo held the cythara against his extended left arm, of which in the Louvre example, a fragment of one twisting scrolling horn upright remains against his biceps.

Though the proportions were always important in Greek art, the appeal of the Greek sculptures eludes any explanation by proportion alone.

The statues of Apollo were thought to incarnate his living presence, and these representations of illusive imaginative reality had deep roots in the Minoan period, and in the beliefs of the first Greek speaking people who entered the region during the bronze-age.

Just as the Greeks saw the mountains, forests, sea and rivers as inhabited by concrete beings, so nature in all of its manifestations possesses clear form, and the form of a work of art.

Spiritual life is incorporated in matter, when it is given artistic form. Just as in the arts the Greeks sought some reality behind appearances, so in mathematics they sought permanent principles which could be applied wherever the conditions were the same.

Artists and sculptors tried to find this ideal order in relation with mathematics, but they believed that this ideal order revealed itself not so much to the dispassionate intellect, as to the whole sentient self.

In the archaic pediments and friezes of the temples, the artists had a problem to fit a group of figures into an isosceles triangle with acute angles at the base.

The Siphnian Treasury in Delphi was one of the first Greek buildings utilizing the solution to put the dominating form in the middle, and to complete the descending scale of height with other figures sitting or kneeling.

The pediment shows the story of Heracles stealing Apollo's tripod that was strongly associated with his oracular inspiration. Their two figures hold the centre.

In the pediment of the temple of Zeus in Olympia , the single figure of Apollo is dominating the scene. These representations rely on presenting scenes directly to the eye for their own visible sake.

They care for the schematic arrangements of bodies in space, but only as parts in a larger whole. While each scene has its own character and completeness it must fit into the general sequence to which it belongs.

In these archaic pediments the sculptors use empty intervals, to suggest a passage to and from a busy battlefield. The artists seem to have been dominated by geometrical pattern and order, and this was improved when classical art brought a greater freedom and economy.

Apollo as a handsome beardless young man, is often depicted with a kithara as Apollo Citharoedus or bow in his hand, or reclining on a tree the Apollo Lykeios and Apollo Sauroctonos types.

The Apollo Belvedere is a marble sculpture that was rediscovered in the late 15th century; for centuries it epitomized the ideals of Classical Antiquity for Europeans, from the Renaissance through the 19th century.

The life-size so-called " Adonis " found in on the site of a villa suburbana near the Via Labicana in the Roman suburb of Centocelle is identified as an Apollo by modern scholars.

In the late 2nd century CE floor mosaic from El Djem , Roman Thysdrus , he is identifiable as Apollo Helios by his effulgent halo , though now even a god's divine nakedness is concealed by his cloak, a mark of increasing conventions of modesty in the later Empire.

Another haloed Apollo in mosaic, from Hadrumentum , is in the museum at Sousse. Apollo has often featured in postclassical art and literature.

In discussion of the arts, a distinction is sometimes made between the Apollonian and Dionysian impulses where the former is concerned with imposing intellectual order and the latter with chaotic creativity.

Friedrich Nietzsche argued that a fusion of the two was most desirable. Carl Jung 's Apollo archetype represents what he saw as the disposition in people to over-intellectualise and maintain emotional distance.

Charles Handy , in Gods of Management uses Greek gods as a metaphor to portray various types of organisational culture.

Apollo represents a 'role' culture where order, reason, and bureaucracy prevail. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia.

Greek god. This article is about the Greek and Roman god. For the spaceflight program, see Apollo program. For other uses, see Apollo disambiguation.

For other uses, see Phoebus disambiguation. God of oracles, healing, archery, music and arts, sunlight, knowledge, herds and flocks, and protection of the young.

Apollo Belvedere , c. Sacred Places. Sacred Islands. Sacred Mountains. Rites of passage. Hellenistic philosophy. Other Topics. Main articles: Ancient Greek temple and Roman temple.

Main article: Greek mythology. Main article: Apollo and Daphne. Ancient Greece portal Myths portal Religion portal. Austin: University of Texas Press.

Hoffmann, Yalouris , no. Beekes , Etymological Dictionary of Greek , Brill, , p. Internationale Archäologie in German.

Arbeitsgemeinschaft, Symposium, Tagung, Kongress. Band Kult ur kontakte. Akten des Table Ronde in Mainz vom März Dictionary of Deities and Demons in the Bible.

Volume IV—V. Approaches to Iconology. Leiden, E. Brill, p. Nilsson, Vol I, p. Behind the Name. Retrieved 30 July Beck , — Martin Nilsson , Vol I, p.

Bryn Mawr Commentaries. Anatolian Historical Phonology. Charis: Essays in Honor of Sara A. Amer School of Classical.

Simbolismo divino. Scholfield, tr. In Smith, William ed. Dictionary of Greek and Roman Biography and Mythology. At the Perseus Project. Ross, Pagan Celtic Britain , ; M.

Thevonot, "Le cheval sacre dans la Gaule de l'Est", Revue archeologique de l'Est et du Centre-Est vol 2 , ; [], "Temoignages du culte de l'Apollon gaulois dans l'Helvetie romaine" , Revue celtique vol 51 , Le Gall, Alesia, archeologie et histoire Paris Die Geschicte der Giechischen Religion.

Vol I". Beck Verlag. Greek Religion , This art is related with Egypt: Odyssey D : M. Nilsson Vol I, p. The Mycenaeans. The British Museum Press.

The Mycenaean World. At Google Books. Which is sung to stop the plagues and the diseases. Proklos: Chrestom from Photios Bibl.

Die Geschicthe der Griechischen religion. Vol I, p. In North-Europe they speak of the " Elf-shots ". In Sweden where the Lapps were called magicians, they speak of the "Lappen-shots".

Martin Nilsson Nom P. Martin Nilsson Vol I, p. BCE 1 June The Iliad. Translated by Butler, Samuel. The Walters Art Museum.

Retrieved 21 June Harvard University Press. Cambridge University Press. Vol I. Park The delphic oracle.

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Also in the Bible: Leviathan. Porzig Illuyankas and Typhon. Kleinasiatische Forschung , pp. Martin Nilsson , Vol I, pp. Cretan Paewones. Roman and Byzantine studies , pp.

The secret of Creta Souvenir Press Ltd. London p. Classical Athens and the Delphic oracle , pp. Broad The oracle: the lost secrets and hidden message of ancient Delphi.

Penguin Group USA. The Greek religion. Schachermeyer The bow symbolized distance, death, terror, and awe, while the lyre more gently proclaimed the joy of communion with Olympus through music, poetry, and dance.

Apollo had many love affairs, though most had unfortunate endings. In art Apollo was represented as a beardless youth, either naked or robed.

Distance, death, terror, and awe were summed up in his symbolic bow. A gentler side of his nature, however, was shown in his other attribute, the lyre , which proclaimed the joy of communion with Olympus the home of the gods through music, poetry, and dance.

Though Apollo was the most Hellenic of all gods, he derived mostly from a type of god that originated in Anatolia and spread to Egypt by way of Syria and Palestine.

From there Apollo went to Pytho Delphi , where he slew Python , the dragon that guarded the area. He established his oracle by taking on the guise of a dolphin, leaping aboard a Cretan ship, and forcing the crew to serve him.

Thus, Pytho was renamed Delphi after the dolphin delphis , and the Cretan cult of Apollo Delphinius superseded that previously established there by Earth Gaea.

During the Archaic period 8th to 6th century bce , the fame of the Delphic oracle spread as far as Lydia in Anatolia and achieved Panhellenic status.

The oracles were subsequently interpreted and versified by priests. Other oracles of Apollo existed on the Greek mainland, on Delos , and in Anatolia , but none rivalled Delphi in importance.

Of the Greek festivals in honour of Apollo, the most curious was the octennial Delphic Stepterion, in which a boy reenacted the slaying of the Python and was temporarily banished to the Vale of Tempe.

In Italy Apollo was introduced at an early date and was primarily concerned, as in Greece, with healing and prophecy; he was highly revered by the emperor Augustus because the Battle of Actium 31 bce was fought near one of his temples.

Apollo Article Media Additional Info. Print Cite. It was this epithet of Apollo that seemed to be responsible in associating him with the Sun.

We then see, all the qualities and attributes of Helios, taken over by Apollo in the subsequent periods. In other words, the cult of Helios was absorbed into the cult of Apollo, however, Helios was not completely overshadowed.

With the passage of time, the cult of Apollo, as a whole, became so strong that he began to be worshiped for all the major aspects of human life.

One of his most important aspects was spiritual healing, and this, in some form or the other, came to be associated with the characteristics of the Sun.

This is because the sunlight that reaches the earth, possesses healing powers and also those of purification. Thus, Apollo, who was not initially associated with the Sun, came to be associated with it in the later periods.

Apollo was the son of Zeus, the King of the Gods and Leto, the titaness of motherhood and the protectress of children.

Zeus married Leto, when he once accidentally caught her eye, and instantly fell in love. Their union bore the twins Apollo and Artemis, and there are several versions of the myth, telling us the story of their birth.

However, one common factor in each and every version is the fact that the twins were born on the island of Delos, a place that became one of the major pilgrimage sites later on.

Homer informs us that several goddesses had gathered on the island of Delos to witness the birth of Apollo. This included the goddesses Rhea and Dione.

The description of Homer provides legitimacy to the birth of Apollo and Artemis, with respect to their status among the Olympian gods and goddesses.

Pavilion at Delphi, believed to be the place where Leto took the twins after their birth Slaying of Python Of the many heroic feats of Apollo, the story wherein he slew a giant serpent is particularly notable.

It is so, because he achieved this victory only four days after he was born. When Leto took both her children to Delphi from the island of Delos, the city was threatened by an evil, monstrous dragon, known as Python.

Ovid, a first century B. During this phase, when the rays of the Sun touched the Earth Gaia , the union resulted in the Earth giving birth to numerous species.

Some of them were those which were already in existence during the first cycle. But, there were also some others, which were completely new and dangerous.

Among them was a deadly serpent, so huge and different that no species of its kind was known to exist before. It was known to kill the humans and so, they were extremely terrified with it.

Apollo learned about this chthonic monster, on reaching Delphi with his mother and sister. He also learned that Python resided beside the ice-cold Castalian Spring, which emitted vapors that helped the Delphic Oracle to make prophecies.

According to the Homeric version, it was Hera who summoned Python to kill Leto, and Apollo killed it, in order to save his mother.

Nevertheless, Apollo decided to kill the dragon, for which he requested Hephaestus Roman: Vulcan , the maker of the weapons of the Gods, to make a bow and arrow for him.

Hephaestus agreed. Apollo then pursued the dragon into one of the sacred caves at Delphi, and killed it with his newly acquired weapon.

Statius, another 1st century A. He had to shoot the monster with hundreds and thousands of poison-tipped arrows, and had to empty countless quivers in the process.

Ovid also says that Python was so huge that when Apollo killed it, its corpse spread across many acres of the Earth. A 2nd century A.

He says that when Apollo went to Delphi, the oracles were made by Themis the Greek titaness of divine law. When Apollo tried to trespass the oracular opening, Python stood in his way, and refused to let him enter.

Apollo then slew the creature and thenceforth, took over the command of the oracle. Whatever the nature of Python may have been, since it was the offspring of Gaia, Apollo was liable for a punishment for killing it.

So, from that day onwards, the title of the Delphic Oracle has been Pythia , and it also marks the place where Python was killed. On the other hand, the 1st century B.

Greek geographer, Strabo, also tells us that Apollo, in order to celebrate his victory over the dragon, started the Pythian Games, which, in the beginning, involved musical contests.

The war between Greece and Troy, the Trojan War, saw a major split in the loyalties of Olympian gods and goddesses. While most of them intervened in the war, some of them fought from the Greek side, and some others from the Trojan side.

Apollo was one of the most powerful Olympian gods to have intervened in this mortal conflict. It began when Cressida, the daughter of one of the Trojan priests of Apollo, was captured by a Greek hero, Achilles.

He also prayed to the God to punish Agamemnon for the terrible sin that he had committed by insulting his priest.

It best suited Apollo to hear his prayer from the mortals, and accordingly, he decided not only to rescue Cressida, but also to side with the Trojans in the war.

That very night, he descended on Earth with a motive to destroy the entire Greek encampment. He shot hundreds of arrows of pestilence at the Greek tents.

These arrows carried a dreadful disease throughout their camp, and the next morning saw the sickening and death of many of their warriors.

Apollo was also involved in several other episodes of the Trojan war. Patroclus was then killed by Hector.

This is an important factor that brought Apollo even closer to the ancient Greeks, much like many other Olympian deities. The killings of Cyclops and Niobids are the two very peculiar instances in the life of Apollo.

There are moments in these two episodes, in which the god seems very unfriendly and unkind. Human emotions of vengeance, hatred, and jealousy seem to take a toll of his mind.

But, on the other hand, these are also the very factors that make him seem more human-like. For this grievous crime, Zeus sentenced him to one whole year of rigorous labor and a life of anonymity.

During this period, he served as a shepherd for the Thessalian king, Admetus. In return of the good treatment given to him by Admetus, Apollo blessed him with riches and great victories.

Another episode relates to Niobe, the Theban Queen, who was overcome with pride because she had more children than Leto.

In her false pride Niobe began considering herself superior to Leto, and kept on demeaning her every now and then. Annoyed by these repetitive acts of Niobe, Apollo and Artemis decided to teach her a lesson.

Apollo killed all her sons, and Artemis, all her daughters.

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